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The SAMHI is a composite annual measure of population mental health for each Lower Super Output Area (LSOA) in England. The SAMHI combines data on mental health from multiple sources (NHS-Mental health-related hospital attendances, Prescribing data – Antidepressants, QOF - depression, and DWP - Incapacity benefit and Employment support allowance for mental illness) into a single index.

Technical description 

Each indicator was individually standardised by rescaling data to have a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1 (z-scores). Maximum likelihood factor analysis is used as a method for combining indicators (by finding appropriate weights) into a single score based on the inter-correlations between all the indicators. 

SAMHI index [Version 3.01] - Indicator specification  (193.92 kB)
Oct 2021 - Missing values of ‘samhi_index’ and ‘samhi_dec’ variables for 51 LSOAs have been updated for years 2011,2012 and 2013.
SAMHI index [Version 3.00] - Zip file  (14.91 MB)
Sept 2021 - SAMHI index and indicators have been updated for 2019.
SAMHI index [Version 2.00] - Zip file  (13.44 MB)
Dec 2020 - Change of standardization method: The ranking method used for the ver1.0 SAMHI index was replaced by the z-score method for improving the index quality.

About this dataset

Last Update
Created 2 years ago, updated 3 months ago
  • Konstantinos Daras
  • Benjamin Barr
Citation Daras K, Barr B (2021), Small Area Mental Health Index (SAMHI) <VERSION NUMBER> [Open Dataset], Place-based Logitudinal Data Resource, DOI: 10.17638/
  • LSOA
  • England